Politica Internazionale

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venerdì 30 gennaio 2015

The African Union addresses the problems of the continent

Conflicts crossing Africa were the focus of discussions in the African Union Summit, which was held in Addis Ababa, where he assumed the presidency of Zimbabwe's President Robert Mugabe. The major concern is the relentless offensive that Boko Haram is conducting in Nigeria and who recently addressed also to neighboring Cameroon. The need to address the emergency Islamist with a single response of African governments has been sanctioned by the words of the President of the African Union Commission, Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, who sounded the alarm for the stability of the entire continent, threatened by brutality and violence of radical militants. Recalling that the victims caused by the actions of Boko Haram, which has intensified the violence coming to exterminate entire villages, were about 13,000 since 2009, the Council of peace and security has agreed the need for the creation of an international military force, calling for a joint effort by the countries of the region, able to defeat the Islamic fundamentalists. The actions of Boko Haram threatens, in addition to the personal safety of the population, even the possibility of economic development, having practically taken hostage a large area of Nigeria. Military force designed to fight the fundamentalists should count on 7,500 effective from Nigeria, Cameroon, Niger, Chad and Benin, the same countries that already at the end of last year had agreed on the creation of an international force composed of 3,000 soldiers, never became operational because of disagreements arising between Abuja and neighboring countries. It is this loss of time allowed Boko Haram to intensify its raids, both in the country of Nigeria, which in neighboring Cameroon, which came into the lens of the fundamentalists. The spread of the operating area of Islamic fundamentalists led a major concern even in Western countries, fearful of contagion to sub Saharan areas of the continent, in a perfect conjunction with the caliphate, which Boko Haram claims to be affiliated. The pressure of the Western countries and the UN could accelerate the use of international force required in Addis Ababa, on whose support the African Union could seek help from extra African powers. However there is only Boko Haram to worry about the African Union: even the conflicts in Mali, Somalia, Libya, South Sudan and Congo are emergencies spillovers for continental stability. One of the sources of greatest concern is the increasing presence of the religious fundamentalist in conflicts, a new onset of forces increasingly able to destabilize governments weak and de-legitimized by the continuous changes in the political balance, operating in a context of deep uncertainty, thanks the lack of resolution of the Arab spring or internal conflicts never defined and always capable of destabilizing the fragile institutional apparatuses. These structural weaknesses connected the phenomenon, widely denounced by the UN Secretary General, Ban Ki-moon, who attended the summit in Addis Ababa, the desire to stay in power for many African leaders, well beyond their mandate and betraying the natural legitimate aspirations of the people who are supposed to represent. In this regard the appointment as Chairman of the African Union in the person of Robert Mugabe, is in stark contrast to what has been in office since 1980 and is accused by his opponents of having retained power with rigged electoral contests and intimidation and violence against his opponents. Similar cases are registered in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Burundi, Rwanda and Togo, where the heads of state of these nations are accused of changing the rules of democracy to extend its mandate. It is an endemic aspect of the operation of several state systems that prevents the African continent to achieve development standards appropriate to the great wealth of raw materials available and that does not allow to deal independently humanitarian emergencies, famine diseases (including Ebola), which plague the continent.

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